PHI 445 Week 4 Quiz

This file PHI 445 Week 4 Quiz has solutions on the following questions:

1. Question : The consumers who think ahead, consider, and watch every penny they spend, knowing how their choices will affect their preferences are known as:

2. Question : The ________ theory of business’ duties to consumers claims that a business has four main moral duties: the basic duty of (a) complying with the terms of the sales contract, and the secondary duties of (b) disclosing the nature of the product, (c) avoiding misrepresentation, and (d) avoiding the use of duress and undue influence.

3. Question : Critics to the market approach respond that the benefits of free markets are obtained only when the markets have all of the

4. Question : In the Market Approach to consumer protection, if consumers do not place a high value on safety (or are unwilling to pay for it), then it is wrong to force them to accept higher levels of safety through regulation.

5. Question : Research has shown people are irrational and inconsistent when weighing choices based on probability estimates of future costs and payoffs.

6. Question : The most common criticism of advertising concerns its effect on the consumer’s beliefs.

7. Question : The due care theory of the manufacturer’s duties to consumers is based on the idea that consumers and sellers do not meet as equals and that the consumer’s interests are particularly vulnerable to being harmed by the manufacturer, who has a knowledge and an expertise that the consumer lacks.

8. Question : Although there are some advertisements that are intended to manipulate, such advertisements do not violate the consumer’s right to be treated as a free and equal rational being.

9. Question : __________is privacy with respect to a person’s inner life. This includes the person’s thoughts and plans, personal beliefs and values, feelings, and wants.

10. Question : Arguments against discrimination are:

11. Question : Widely recognized categories of discriminatory practices include:

12. Question : Since the jobs women have historically taken pay low wages and salaries, proponents of ____________programs attempt not to place women into higher paying jobs, but to increase the salaries of those jobs where women currently are employed.

13. Question : Types of comparisons to provide evidence of discrimination are:

14. Question : Discrimination in employment involves three basic elements: it must be a decision not based on individual merit, the decision must derive from racial or sexual prejudice, and the decision must have a harmful impact on the interest of employees.

15. Question : Discriminatory acts themselves can be categorized according to the extent to which they are intentional and

institutionalized. An act may be part of the isolated behavior of a single individual who intentionally discriminates based on personal prejudice; be part of the routine, institutionalized behavior of a group; and which intentionally discriminates out of personal prejudice.

16. Question : Rawls would argue that it is unjust to give some people more opportunity than others.

17. Question : Kant would argue that humans should be treated as ends in themselves and never as a means to an end. Therefore, discrimination is wrong because it violates people’s rights to be treated as equals.

18. Question : Affirmative action programs call for positive steps designed to eliminate the effects of past discrimination. Such programs are now legally required of all firms holding government contracts.

19. Question : Misiolek made only sex-based insults, not both sex and race-based insults.

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